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S'Avenc , Pórtol (Marratxí) MALLORCA

 

Depredadores

 

Depredadores de la Colmena

Iridomyrmex humilis, (Linepithema humile)  (Mayr).  [Himenóptera, Formicidae]. Hormiga argentina. Formiga petita Argentinian Ant

 

Ver documento sobre posibilidades de controlar la hormiga con Crithmum maritimum (Fonoy marí / Hinojo Marino / Samphire)

Galleria mellonella, (Tinea cerella) (Linnaeus, 1758)  
 [Lepidóptera, Gallerniinae, Pyralidae]. Polilla de la cera. Gramanera Greater wax moth.

. Sobre la cria del Tenebrio mollitor

Merops apiaster. [Coraciforme,  Meropidae] Abejaruco.  Abellerol. Bee-eater

Actualmente el abejaruco esta clasificada como ave protegida. aunque en las Baleares no este en peligro. Esta ave es capaz de comerse 300 abejas por día, suele volar en bandadas, he observado como devoraban un enjambre silvestre (feral) de unos 3 kilos en 20 minutos sin sufrir ninguna picadura. Apiarios en la zona de Muro (40 colmenas) han tenido que ser abandonados debido a los desastres de esta especie.

Protaetia  [Coleóptera, Scarabaeidae].  Escarabajo.    Escarbató, Brumidorea . Scarab beetle

non Aethina tumida (Murray) [Coleóptera, Nitidulidae].

Hasta el dia de hoy no hemos conseguido ver la tan temida Aethina tumida en los campos de Baleares, pero si la burmidora

Pequeño escarabajo, de procedencia Africana donde convive con las abejas. En África y la zona de influencia primaria actual (mediterráneo) no hace peste, al contrario  en el continente Americano donde cría dentro de la colmena.

 

 

 

Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758) Sphinx atropos Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1: 490, [Lepidóptera Ditrysia Sphingoidea Sphingidae Sphinginae]

Calavera, Cabeza de Muerto, Mariposa de la Muerta, Aqueroncia.  Calavera.  Death's Head Hawk-moth

Lepidóptera = Con 4 alas y boca chupadora  / Coleóptero = Boca chupadora, caparazón y alas    /   Himenóptera = Hormigas  / Díptera = Aparato bucal para chupar, 2 alas membranosas, 2 balancines como la mosca.

 

Soluciones

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

Pestes a controlar :  Lepidópteros, Coleópteros y Dípteros

El principio básico son  las delta endotoxinas, o propiedades pépticas (de la piel) de las esporas que se convierten en cristales para las larvas de la Galleria y Aethina. (ver documento de re-certificación /registro anual de la agencia EPA de EE.UU)

Nombre microbial (cepas) del Pesticida (Bt) :

S'Avenc de Pòrtol

Camí de Sant Jordí, Bustia # 10

Carretera MA 3010 ( Santa María - Pòrtol) Km. 2,5

07141 Pòrtol - Marratxí - MALLORCA - Spain

Telf. 971 140-870  --

e-mail savenc@hotmail.com   (Pep Matas)

 

 

 

El zumbido de las abejas puede mantener controladas las orugas, dice Jürgen Tautz de la Universidad de Würzburg. El sonido asusta a las orugas que se comen las plantas, lo que hace que las abejas sean algo asi como "guardaespaldas", según un nuevo estudio. Los investigadores sugieren que los agricultores deberían cultivar flores junto a algunos cultivos para ayudar a disuadir a otros insectos y posiblemente incluso aumentar el rendimiento. Los investigadores encontraron que los pimientos dulces cultivados en una tienda de campaña con abejas, han sufrido de un 60 a casi el 70 por ciento menos de daño por las orugas, que aquellos que no están expuestos a las abejas. "Nuestros resultados indican por primera vez que las visitas de las abejas proporcionan una ventaja totalmente inesperado," dijo el Dr. Tautz. "Ellas no sólo el transportan el polen de flor a flor, si no además, reducen la destrucción de las plantas por parte de los herbívoros."

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/39514/title/Buzzing_bees_protect_plant_leaves

Buzzing bees protect plant leaves
Pest caterpillars don't eat as much if distracting pollinators zoom by
Web edition : Monday, December 22nd, 2008
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access

BZZZZY AIR TRAFFICHoneybees going about their business of pollinating flowers may create such a buzz that caterpillars munching on leaves along the bees' flight paths can't get a quiet meal and thus do less damage to foliage. IMAGE CREDIT: Helga R.Heilmann, BEEgroup Würzburg

Traffic noise, honeybee traffic that is, can be a bane for caterpillars and a boon for plants.

The buzz buzz buzz of honeybees zipping overhead as they forage can keep caterpillars below from getting enough peace and quiet for a full meal, says Jürgen Tautz of the University of Würzburg in Germany.

In tests, bee flight-path distractions took such a toll on dining that caterpillars ate only about a third of the leaf area they consume in a bee-free zone, Tautz and Würzburg colleague Michael Rostás report online December 22 in Current Biology.access              

GOOD BUZZSoybeans left for 18 days in tents with caterpillars suffered more damage from the pests' munching when bees were excluded (random selection of leaves, right) than when the pollinators zipped back and forth over the plants (left).IMAGE CREDIT: Helga R.Heilmann, BEEgroup, Current Biology

 

Bee traffic-noise as a pest deterrent is “a very cool and novel idea,” says Jeff Conner of Michigan State University’s Kellogg Biological Station in Hickory Corners. Earlier work, including his, showed that pests eating plants makes the plants less attractive to pollinators, but “this new study turns that idea on its head,” he says. The pollinators are making plants less attractive to pests.

So far Tautz has just tested the idea in a strictly controlled setup. He and his colleagues put up a pair of tents housing arrays of plants. In the various runs of the test, researchers used bell pepper plants, once with and once without fruits, as well as soybean plants. A beehive opened into one tent and some 50 bees at a time buzzed over the plants on the way to collecting sugar water from feeders in the corners.

As a sample pest, Tautz chose the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), a caterpillar that feeds on some 50 plant species. Armyworms are relentless munching machines, but they stop moving, and sometimes drop off their perches, if a wasp flies by. Plenty of wasps eat caterpillars, and Tautz says that he’s found sensory hairs on caterpillars, including beet armyworms, that detect the wasps’ wing beats.  access

 

EATING MACHINEA beet armyworm just keeps on chewing unless something really scary disturbs it, like the buzz of an incoming insect.Helga R.Heilmann, BEEgroup Würzburg

Honeybees don't hunt caterpillars, but Tautz says he was out walking his dog one day, listening to the buzz of bees, when it occurred to him that, to a caterpillar, bees’ wing beats might sound similar to wasps’.

That seemed to be the case in his experiments. In tents with bees flying over plants without fruit, caterpillars did less damage to leaves than in quiet tents, the researchers report.

In the tent without bee traffic and with peppers already forming on plants, the quiet didn’t make as much of a difference in leaf damage. But that’s because caterpillars took advantage of the bee-free peace to move off the leaves and start eating the peppers themselves, Tautz says.

Conner says that protection from traffic noise doesn’t necessarily indicate any plant evolution that promotes this phenomenon. It could just be a happy side effect of pollination.

Whatever the history, it makes a good example of hard-to-spot indirect relationships between species in ecosystems, Tautz says.

Also, he says he can imagine that gardeners might someday take advantage of this effect. “Alternating rows of vegetables and flowers not only look beautiful, they may reduce the use of pesticides,” he says.

 


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03/01/2009